Psychology has made significant contributions to our understanding of common sense, by providing insights into the cognitive and social processes that underlie everyday reasoning and decision-making
Common sense refers to the knowledge and understanding that people possess about the world, acquired through everyday experiences and observations. Psychology, on the other hand, is the scientific study of human behavior and mental processes. While common sense and psychology might seem to be quite different, there is actually a great deal of overlap between the two fields. Let us explore the relationship between common sense and psychology, examining the ways in which psychological research has contributed to our understanding of common sense, and vice versa. We will also examine some of the ways in which common sense can sometimes be at odds with psychological findings and the challenges this presents.
Understanding common sense
Common sense is often defined as the ability to make practical judgments about everyday matters, based on experience and reasoning. It is not a specific body of knowledge, but rather a set of skills and attitudes that allow people to navigate their world in an effective and adaptive way. While common sense is often associated with practical wisdom and sound judgment, it can also be prone to error and bias. This is because common sense is largely shaped by cultural and social factors, which can sometimes lead to misconceptions and misunderstandings. For example, common sense might lead someone to believe that people who are quiet and reserved are unfriendly or unapproachable, even if this is not necessarily true. Similarly, common sense might lead someone to believe that certain groups of people are inherently more intelligent or capable than others, even if there is no scientific evidence to support this belief.
The role of psychology in understanding common sense
Psychology has made significant contributions to our understanding of common sense, by providing insights into the cognitive and social processes that underlie everyday reasoning and decision-making.
One of the key areas of psychological research that have shed light on common sense is the study of cognitive biases. Cognitive biases are systematic errors in thinking that can lead people to make inaccurate or illogical judgments. For example, confirmation bias refers to the tendency to seek out information that confirms one’s preexisting beliefs, while ignoring or dismissing information that contradicts them. Other cognitive biases that can affect common sense include the availability heuristic, which involves making judgments based on easily recalled examples, rather than on the overall likelihood of an event; the anchoring bias, which involves being overly influenced by an initial piece of information when making subsequent judgments; and the framing effect, which involves being influenced by the way that information is presented, rather than the information itself.
Psychology has also provided insights into the social processes that can influence common sense. For example, social influence research has shown that people are often swayed by the opinions of others, even when those opinions are clearly wrong or unfounded. This can lead to the spread of false information and misconceptions. In addition, psychology has explored the role of emotions in shaping common sense. For example, research has shown that people’s judgments and decisions can be influenced by their current emotional state, leading them to make choices that are not necessarily in their best interest.
Challenges in balancing common sense and psychological findings
While psychology has provided valuable insights into the cognitive and social processes that shape common sense, there can be challenges in balancing these findings with people’s intuitive beliefs and experiences. For example, some psychological findings might contradict common sense or challenge deeply held beliefs. This can lead to resistance or skepticism among people who feel that the findings are not consistent with their own experiences.
Furthermore, even when people are presented with evidence that contradicts their preexisting beliefs or common sense, they may still be reluctant to change their views. This is known as confirmation bias, and it can lead to the perpetuation of false information and misconceptions. Another challenge is the fact that psychological research often involves complex statistical analyses and experimental designs that may be difficult for the average person to understand. This can lead to misunderstandings and misinterpretations of research findings, further complicating the process of integrating psychological insights into common sense.
Despite these challenges, it is important to recognize the value of psychological research in informing and improving common sense. By understanding the cognitive and social processes that shape our beliefs and behaviors, we can develop a more accurate and nuanced understanding of the world around us. Furthermore, by being open to new information and willing to revise our beliefs in light of new evidence, we can avoid the pitfalls of cognitive biases and make better decisions in our personal and professional lives.
The author is a teacher and can be reached at [email protected]