The Naqshbandi Order

The Naqshbandi Order

(Extract from the books “Minhaj-ul-Arifin” (English) and “Sufi Saints of Kashmir Sufi Orders in Kashmir” compiled by Sayid Ashraf Shah)

The real founder of Naqshbandi order was Shaikh Abul Hasan Khirqani ‘RA’ (d. 1033 AD), but it was the twelfth saint of this order, by whose extraordinary knowledge and practice, besides vast service, this order achieved fame and lasting life; this saint was Hazrat Khwaja Baha-ud-Din Naqshband (RA), born in Bukhara in 1318 AD and after living there for seventy-one years, passed away in 1389 AD. Till his time this order was known as the order of Khwajagan, but after him it became associated with his name and became famous as Naqshbandi order.
Though in the initial period in India this order of Sufism too arrived through the saints of Bukhara but it was only Hazrat Khwaja Baqi Billah ‘RA’ (b.971 AH) and his great authorised disciple Hazrat Mujaddid Alf Sani Shaikh Ahmad Sirhindi (RA) (maternal ancestor of the compiler), by whose blessings and favours the Arab and Ajam were benefited.
Shaikh Baqi Billah (RA), Shaikh Abdul Ahad Sirhindi (RA), Hazrat Mujaddid Sahib and Khwaja Mohammad Masoom Sirhindi (RA) had deep intellectual and spiritual connections with scholars and saints of Kashmir. In Maktoob Imam Rabbani, there are some vital and interesting letters addressed to the saints of Kashmir. One of the descendants of Hazrat Mujaddad Alf Thani Shaikh Ahmad Sirhindi (RA), namely Shaikh Ismail Ahmadi Bukhari (maternal ancestor of the compiler) migrated to Kashmir and lies buried at Dabtal across Zainakadal, in whose compound lies buried Hazrat Khwaja Habibullah Attar (RA) along his side.
Similarly, among the teachers of Hazrat Mujaddid Sahib (RA) are Mulla Kamal-ud-Din Kashmiri (RA) and Hazrat Shaikh Yaqoob Sarfi (RA) heading the list. Hazrat Mujaddid Sahib had the relation of Pir and disciple with his respected teacher; particularly he had obtained the permission in Kubravi Hamadani order from Shaikh Yaqoob Sarfi only. Hazrat Sayid Adam Bannori (RA) had also got the permission direct from him. Even Hazrat Shah Wali-ullah Muhaddis Dehlavi and his respected father Hazrat Shah Abd-ur-Rahim, besides the whole dynasty of Wali-ullah were associated with this order. Its mention has been made by Hazrat Shah Sahib as:
“I got initiated into this order and draped its robe at the hands of Shaikh Abd-ur-Rahim, who in turn was initiated by Abdullah Adam Bannuri, who was initiated by Shaikh Yaqub Sarfi Kashmiri.”
Among the Naqshbandi saints, the other great personalities are Hazrat Khwaja Khawand Mahmood (RA) (who was compelled to leave Kashmir by the Governor of Kashmir Zafar Khan Ahsan after obtaining the support of like-minded central nobles on feeling afraid due to his reformation activities) and whose grand mausoleum still exists in Lahore. His son Khwaja Moin-ud-Din Naqshbandi (RA) was among the great Shaikhs of first rank. Khwaja Moin-ud-Din Naqshbandi had constructed a grand Khanqah of this order in the heart of Srinagar, which became the centre for Quran recitation, remembrance, the place for teaching lessons, writing books and their composing. Khwaja Sahib was the student of Shaikh Abdul Haq Muhaddis Dehlavi (RA) and had family relations with Aurangzeb Alamgir too. The qualities of both these saintly persons had got transferred to him. He tried to absorb the religious fervour of Sultan Aurangzeb and the quest for knowledge of Shaikh Muhaddis besides his liking for research. He dedicated all his books written by him to the Sultan.
Khwaja Sahib has left a great store of books on Commentary, Hadith, Fiqah, Sufism and the knowledge of speech. Among his books is one “Radd-ul-malahidah” – an Arabic book in which he has rejected and warned the false, imitative Sufis following the footsteps of the saints of Naqshbandi-Faroqi order. He was buried at Khwaja Bazar Srinagar near the Khanqah-i-Naqshbandya.
Among his contemporaries were also Shaikh Murad Naqshbandi Bukhari (RA), Shaikh Murad Mattoo Naqshbandi (RA) worth mentioning, who adorned thousands of Kashmiri servants of God with inner reformation and good etiquette, after sitting in their respective circles. From this very order one more Shaikh Murad Bukhari also got benefited from Kashmiri saints, who migrated to Constantinople Turkey later on, where his progeny achieved great fame in the field of publicity of religious knowledge and imparting of training in the order.

Shrine of Hazrat Moin-ud-Din
Naqshbandi (RA)
(Annual Urs of Hazrat Baha-ud-din Naqshband (RA) and Khoja Digar is celebrated at the shrine of Khwaja Moin-ud-din Naqshbandi (RA) on 3rd Safar every year. This year it falls on Sunday, the 10th October)
Besides the Suhrawardy and Kubravi orders, which entered Kashmir, there were the Naqshbandi and Qadiri orders that followed them. The Naqshbandi order is one of the eldest mystic orders and was originally started in the land of Turks beyond the Amil Darya. It was popularized mainly by Khwaja Baha-ud-Din Muhammad Naqshband (717-791 AH/1317-1389 AD). In Kashmir it was introduced by Sayid Hilal, who arrived there in the reign of Sultan Sikandar (1389-1413 AD). Sayid Hilal is said to have been a direct disciple of Khwaja Baha-ud-Din Naqshband. He lived a quiet life and died on 14 Rabi-ul-Awal, 861 AH/ 9 February 1457 AD at the village Asham, north of Kashmir, where he had settled down. Sayid Hilal left only one disciple, named Mir Sayid Amin, popularly known in Kashmir as “Wusi- Sahib”. He hailed from the celebrated Baihaqi Sayids and was the second son of Sayid Husain Baihaqi or Mantaqi. Sayid Amin had received his early education from Haji Ibrahim Adham. When Sayid Hilal arrived in Kashmir, Sayid Amin became his disciple and received initiation into Naqshbandi order.
Sayid Amin was adopted as a son by Baihaqi Begum, the wife of Sultan Zain-ul-Abidin, but the life of affluence did not appeal to him. Like his spiritual master, he led a life of retirement at Asham. When Sayid Hilal died, he moved to Srinagar, where he confined himself in a room near Koh-i-Maran. Although Sayid Amin had kept away from the royal court, he became the victim of a political intrigue. Some disgruntled Kashmiri nobles, who had become alienated from the Baihaqi Sayids because of their arrogance, made a surprise attack on them on 30 Ziqad 889 AH/8 December 1484 AD, and killed fifteen members of the family. Among these was the inoffensive Sayid Amin. He was later buried at Alikadal, on the right bank of river Jhelum in Srinagar, where his tomb exists till date. Sayid Amin did not leave any follower worthy of mention. After his death the Naqshbandi order remained unknown in Kashmir for more than a century.
It was revived by Khwaja Khawand Mahmud (d.11 Shaban, 1052 AH/4 November 1642 AD), who arrived there at the end of the sixteenth century. The Khwaja was the son of Khwaja Mir Sayid Sharif, who claimed decent from Khwaja Ala-ud-Din Attar (d. 802 AH/1400 AD), a distinguished disciple of Khwaja Baha-ud-Din Naqshband. Khwaja Khawand was initiated in the order by Khwaja Abu Ishaq Safedki, but he claimed to have received inspiration direct from Baha-ud-Din Naqshband. Before entering Kashmir from Kabul, Khwaja Khawand had journeyed to many countries. The Khwaja did not stay there for long and soon left for Agra. However, in the seventeenth century, when Khwaja Khawand made several further visits to Kashmir, the Naqshbandi order received a great impetus there.
(Extract of Shajra Mubaraka Tariqi Mashaikhi Qadirya, Shazlya, Madinya, Chastya, Naqshbandya {source: handwritten manuscript of Shaikh Abdul Haq Muhaddis Dehlavi} {This shajra mubaraka is a copy of the handwritten manuscript of Hazrat Allama Shaikh Abdul Haq Muhaddis Dehlavi given to his disciple Allama Haidar bin Feroz Kashmiri who was contemporary of the ancestor (Shaikh Mohammad Moomin) of the compiler and the manuscript is preserved in his ancestral library.}

Al Naqshbandya
01) Prophet Muhammad (SAW)
02) Abu Bakr Siddiq (RA)
03) Hazrat Salman Farsi (RA)
04) HazratQasim-b-Mohamad-b-Ab.Bakr
05) Hazrat Imam Jafar Sadiq (RA)
06) Hazrat Shaikh Bayazid Bastami (QS)
07) Hazrat Shaikh Abul Hasan Khirqani
08) Hazrat Shaikh Abu Ali Farmadi (QS)
09) Hazrat Khwaja Yousuf Hamadani(RA
10) Hazrat Kh. Abdul Khaliq GajdwaniRA
11) Hazrat Kh. Aarif Devgari (QS)
12) Hazrat Kh. Mahmood Fafnavi (QS)
13) Hazrat Kh. Ali Rayatni (QS)
14) Hazrat Kh. Mohamad Babai Samasi
15) Hazrat Kh. Amir Kalal (QS)
16) Hazrat Kh. Baha-ud-Din Naqshband
17) Hazrat Moulana Yaqub Charkhi (QS)
18) Hazrat Makhdum Mulla Zahid (QS)
19) Hazrat Moulane Darvesh (QS)
20) Khwaja Moulana Khwajagi (QS)
21) Hazrat Kh. Mohamad Baqi (QS)
22) Hazrat Shaikh Abdul Haq Dehlavi
23) Hazrat Kh. Haidar Allama Kashmiri

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