Importance of Socio-economic Characteristics in Agro Decision Making

Socio-economic sketch ora mug shot of the respondents is essential in articulating and responding to the problems in social science research,  in general and agriculture,  in particular. In addition, it plays a vital role in making a decision at the farm level by providing a hint for social and economic conditions  either at the micro level or macro level in relation to others in society. Accordingly, it defines either the  standard of living or richness of life and quality of life or completeness of life coupled with accessibility to the private or public resources. In addition, it offers an initiative to consumption and income arrangement along with food and nutritional safety of domiciliary and  guides the social, behavioral, interactive, communicative, negotiating, developmental and psychological factors.
It constitutes a very significant part of a primary study in general and sample study (estimation) in particular and adds to expertise, knowledge, ambition, methodology, acumen, implementation along with susceptibility to change, dimensions to tolerate unforeseen contingencies, economic incentives and impulses etc. (Roy, Chandra, Kharbikar, Joshi and Jethi, 2013).Keeping this in view, it is very important to take note of a set of peculiar features such as age, sex, education, income, size of land holding, a system of ownership, and asset holding and so on. In addition, access to the market, level of technological development, agricultural amenities, irrigation in particular, agricultural research and extension provision, price inducements, and domestic and international policies affect decision making in agriculture and have a close impression on agricultural activities.
The age structure of a population pretty well indicates the type of population under study. There is a strong relationship between the economic development of a country and the proportion of people in different age groups. The more people are developed in a country, the higher is the proportion of people in higher age groups and vice versa. The fewer people are developed in a country, the higher is the proportion of people in younger age groups and vice versa which is generally the case of third world countries, particularly India (Awais& Ahmad, 2012).Due to lack of scientific (traditional or no mechanical) method of production in the agriculture sector, socio-economic characteristics and role of the cultivators are very important which has very decisive policy implication. That is to say that better socio-economic characteristics and more active, lively, energetic and experienced cultivators would prove beneficial and well-organized and for that reason more efficient.
Jammu and Kashmir’s economy in particular is agrarian and rural in nature where the socio-economic characteristics, farm characteristics in particular, are underdeveloped. In this type of economy role of gender is conceived as an important socio-economic variable affecting the quality and quantity of agriculture products (Doss, 2002). Furthermore, it is asserted that in rural economies the majority of women folk involved in agricultural activities and right from the process of production to marketing we find their engrossment. Therefore, it is very important to provide proper education and training to women agriculturalists.
Education as an investment is very lucrative and attractive than investment in physical capital like machinery (Schultz, 1961). It is undoubtedly an important asset not only for an individual but for the society as a whole by means of providing the fundamentals to the nature and significance of the society and furnishing the individual to avow his rights and to allow due slice from others(Zaidi & Munir, 2014). It raises the level of cognizance and understanding coupled with ups and downs in outlook and ethics. As fiscal and monetary benefits together with social capital and prestige are outcomes of formal education, a decorum is set here.
It has been realized long back that growth, development and welfare involve not only expenditures on physical capital but human capital as well which bring not only changes in machinery but people as well that makes it possible to take advantage of technical progress thereby creating and expanding knowledge. The malfunctioning of a business unit can be judged from the high net outflow of human capital. Education affects the organizational behavior of a business unit. In order to investigate whether this assertion holds true in the case of agriculture, it is very important to examine the variable “education status” of the farmers. And it is a very vital socio-economic factor affecting agriculture practices and outcomes thereof.
References:
Awais, M. & Ahmad, R. (2012). An analytical study of socio-economic conditions of tribal farmers in Bijnor district of U.P. State. Shodhganga. Retrieved from http://hdl.handle.net/10603/11218
Doss, C. (2002). Men’s crops? Women’s crops? The gender patterns of cropping in Ghana. World Development, 30(11), 1987–2000.
Roy, M. L., Chandra, N., Kharbikar H.L., Joshi P. and. Jethi, R. (2013). Socio-economic status of hill farmers: an exploration from Almora District in Uttarakhand. International Journal of Agriculture and Food Science Technology., 04(04), 353-358.
Schultz, T. W. (1961). Investment in Human Capital. American Economic Review, 51, 1–17.
Zaidi, H., & Munir, A. (2014). WESTERN UTTAR PRADESH. 4, 1550–1554.

—The author is an  ICSSR Doctoral Fellow at  Department of Economics, Central University of Kashmir and Guest Faculty at NIFT, Srinagar. She can be reached at:qadribinish@gmail.com