Migration is the movement of people which encompasses a change in the place of normal residence of people from one settlement to another or a change in physical space (Todaro & Smith, 2008) and is meticulously, carefully, and closely linked with occupational shifts of one kind or another (Theodore Laplow). There are two factors behind migrations: push and pull factors (Zimmermann, 1994). Push factors force humans to leave a place of origin, whereas push factors invite or attract humans towards a particular place. Some of the classic examples of push factors are conflict, war, political turmoil, poverty, natural catastrophe, lack of prospect and so on, while as some of the major classic pull factors are more opening and prospects, fascination, productive land and fertile soil, better means of transport and communication, high levels of industrialization and urbanization. Migration can be internal or external or international in nature (eGyanKosh, 2017). It is very important to note that the international movement of skilled people takes the shape of the infamous brain drain.
Migration is looked upon as a large movement of individuals generally due to lack of prospects, political instability, conflict or health issues, and risk factors. It has also been named as ‘human flight’ in which mass migration of human beings is involved. It is analogous to capital flight.
However, it is not right to confine the definitional aspect of migration to people alone. It involves the transfer of not only people but culture as well. It is also looked upon as an economic and social cost since emigrants usually take with them the fraction of value of their learning and training backed by the government or other organizations. Migration, if it is a flow of skilled people , has a multiplier effect for a region in which people are getting migrated because it converses trough into crest or gain for that particular region and vice versa. All developing countries are suffering from a brain drain while as developed countries are having brain gain from this phenomenon.
The economic, political, and cultural factors and their interactions and interrelations play an important role in determining the internal and international migration. Migration both affects, and is affected by, the growth and development process. That is to say that there is a two-way causal relationship or bi-way causality between migration and the process of growth and development. Migration plays a vital role in bringing changes in the process of growth and development. The discoveries, inventions, innovations, accumulations (growth of technology), diffusions, and adjustments, by which non-technical aspects of culture respond to technology, made the communication and diffusion of innovations and technology possible, thereby making the linkages between migration and the growth and development process relevant with a multiplier effect on innovations, technological advancements, ideas, skills and knowledge. With a good interface between migration and the process of growth and development, innovations, technological advancements, ideas, skills and knowledge increase at an unmatched and unprecedented rate thus, making the process of globalization and internationalization relevant and therefore popular and increasing migration coupled with the flow of brain drain.
Migration both affects, and is affected by, the growth and development process. That is to say that there is a two-way causal relationship or bi-way causality between migration and the process of growth and development. Migration plays a vital role in bringing changes in the process of growth and development. Migration facilitates innovations, technological developments, knowledge, economic growth, and economic development and in turn innovations, technological developments, knowledge, economic growth, and economic development ensure the continuance of migration.
The population is the most important and valuable resource of any nation. Therefore, to understand the complex relationship between migration and development (Robert et. al., 1994; Gould, 2009), there is a need to study the various aspects of migration and population and its allied theories and policies on the one hand and development its allied theories and policies on another hand. Population policies of developed and developing countries and migration policies have distinctive emphasis, prominence, and highlighting, liable to their socio-economic and demographic antiquity (Paul, 2002).
eGyanKosh. (2017). MEDS-003. Unit 1. Population. Retrieved fromhttp ://egyan kosh .ac .in // handle / 123456789/21620
Cassen, Robert et. al. (1994), Population and Development: Old Debates, NewConclusions, New Brunswick: Transaction Publishers.
Demeny Paul (2002), Population Policy: AConcise Summary, Policy Document No. 173, New York: Population Council.
Gould, W. T.S. (2009), Population and Development, London &New York: Routledge.
Todaro, M. P. &Smith, S. C. (2008), Economic Development, 8thedition, New York: Addison Wesley Longman.
Zimmermann, Klaus F. (1994). European migration: push and pull“. Proceedings of the World Bank Annual Conference on Development Economics 1994. World Bank.
The author is a Research Scholar in Department of Economics, Central University of Kashmir, an Academic Counsellor, IGNOU STUDY CENTRE 1209,S.P. College, Srinagar. She is also an Editor in EPH – International Journal of Business and Management Science & Asian Journal of Managerial Science, an Ezine Articles Expert Author and an IJRULA title awards, 2018 winner (Best Researcher, 2018). She can be reached at: firstname.lastname@example.org