Sajad Hussain Deen
Economic growth leanings are sheathing behind employment prerequisites. This predicts to intensify unemployment and social inequality. In this consequence, job creation is not anticipated to pick up stride. Unemployment in India was about 17.7 million in 2016, 17.8 million in 2017 and is expected to reach 18 million in 2018. Global unemployment levels are projected to remain high. The global unemployment rate in 2016 was 5.7 %, 5.8 % in 2017 and the total unemployment in 2017 was 201 million. The impairment is caused by global economic and social crises. Therefore, it is difficult to create new-fangled quality jobs to millions of fresh market entrants. Due to abating labour market conditions, there is increase in unemployment levels. This may be due to the several subterranean recessions that transpired in the past few years.
We need to address secular stagnation, inequality and structural impairments to growth. Headway is conceivable if a jump start is made by coordinated determination to afford fiscal inducements and public investments. If appropriate employment prospects are to be engendered, we must espouse labour-intensive technology in both rural and urban sectors of the economy. Suitable monetary and fiscal measures need to be implemented for levitation of labour intensity. In the industry sector, the use of labour intensive techniques with subordinate productivity of workers may lower the growth output. But, it is commended to sacrifice output for the sake to creating more employment.
The deficit in investment or capital formation in agriculture is dwindling growth of employment in the agriculture and rural sector. We need to invest in rural roads, power generation, infrastructure, flood control projects and irrigation. By investing, employment will be generated. We need to provide loans to farmers at low interest rates such that farmers who are incarnated below poverty line should be able to buy fertilizers and arrange for their irrigation. This way , the upsurge in productivity and under-employment will be quashed. Around 58% of labour continues to be employed in agriculture and share of agriculture in the economy is still 22%. Most of employed people are not productively employed. They are either underemployed or disguised unemployed. Agriculture has been unkempt during economic reforms and does not get enough credit from commercial banks. Both private and public sectors have reduced investment in agriculture. Due to this reason , unemployment has increased in rural areas.
We need to accentuate on labour absorbing and higher income acquiescent sectors such as vegetable production, horticulture, floriculture, and fisheries, animal and sheep husbandry. There is an enormous employment potential in promotion of agro-processing industry for export purposes. An appropriate number of workers need to be absorbed in urban areas in industrial sector. Capital-intensive technologies imported from abroad are the reasons for failure of industrial sector. Indian industries from post reform period have been using higher capital-intensive technology to overcome competition from imported commodities. A good deal of employment will be generated by the expansion of education and health care. We need to encourage entrepreneurs and labour oriented industries. Employment will be created by encouraging small and cottage industries in tribal, rural and semi-urban areas. This will prevent cities to get over-crowded. The obsolete systems of employment such as contract, outsourcing, daily wages, job honorarium and so on have depreciated the eminence of employment.
Dearth of erudite and skilled fledgling workforce restricts businesses aptitude to engender higher growth, enhanced profits and supplementary jobs. Unemployment puts a constraint on national economies. In augmented automated workplaces businesses knack to originate and renovate is reticent when young workers don’t have skills they need to flourish. 40% of employers worldwide do not get the workers with the skills they require. There are millions of children who do not receive good education. Therefore, it is challenging to contract the skills fissure. Businesses and private sector institutions have a gigantic task to change the situation. Two-thirds of the worlds illiterate are women. There will be significant social, economic and health gains if more girls are educated. The problem of unemployment can be abridged by economic reforms, better utilization of resources and changes in the industrial policies. It will have a foremost impact on employment generation if economic reforms are familiarized property. For plummeting unemployment, governmental bodies are required to pledge long term measures. Equality in income distribution and generation of employment opportunities are two elements which will diminish unemployment as well as poverty. Unemployment is a key obstacle to economic growth. We need to control the population in order to lessen unemployment. Mass migrations from rural to urban areas need to be controlled in order to reduce unemployment among the bevy of factors identified in this essay.
—The author is a PhD in Mechanical Engineering, NIT Srinagar. He can be reached at: Sajad_08phd12@nitsri.net