1948: India Objects to UNSC Resolution

India voiced objections to the UNSC’s resolution; thus, commencing to drag its feet from an agreed stance. Subsequently, with the end of winters and roads being no longer snow-bound in Kashmir, it was seen preparing for a  large-scale military offensive to capture Muzaffarbad and other parts of Azad Kashmir.

As a safeguard, Pakistan Army moved a force comprising three brigades into Azad Kashmir asking it to initially take positions behind the local forces and not get involved in the battle unless the Indian Army broke through. Amidst this crisis, the UNCIP was rushed to the sub-continent by the UNSC under US Admiral Chester W. Nimitz; the newly appointed Plebiscite Administrator.

However, by the time the UNCIP reached the region, the prevailing political and military situation in Kashmir was much changed from what the UNSC had thought it to be while adopting the resolution.


On 18 May, the Indian Army launched the offensive, marking the initiation of the first war between India and Pakistan. However, in the face of stiff resistance offered by indigenous Kashmiri and Pakistan Army troops, coupled with treacherous nature of terrain, Indian offensive soon reached the culminating point – remaining unable to attain the intended objectives. The peace plan proposed by the UNCIP’s resolution of 13  August 1948, agreed to by both India and Pakistan in December 1948, recommended a  three-stage solution for settlement; first, ceasefire, second, truce (synchronized withdrawals of forces on both sides) and, third, the conduct of a plebiscite.

The ceasefire took effect on January 1, 1949, although its timings were considered ‘untimely’ by Pakistan, as these unjustly suited the Indian forces the most.

The UNCIP submitted its arbitration proposals to India and Pakistan on

August 26, 1949, which were rejected by both sides for different reasons. Subsequently,

The Ceasefire Line (CFL) Agreement (formally known as The Karachi Agreement) was signed between India and Pakistan under the auspices of the UNCIP on July 27, 1949, affirming the territorial status in Kashmir i.e. the areas freed by the tribesmen and Kashmir Muslims from Maharaja’s forces in Kashmir, called Azad Kashmir and Gilge –Baltistan, remaining under Pakistan’s control, while India continuing to hold the rest of Kashmir.