On January 20, 1948, the UN Security Council passed Resolution 39 establishing a special commission to investigate the conflict in Kashmir. Subsequent to the commission’s recommendation, the Security Council ordered in its Resolution 47, passed on April 21, 1948 that the invading Pakistani army retreat from Jammu & Kashmir and that the accession of Kashmir to either India or Pakistan be determined in accordance with a plebiscite to be supervised by the UN.
In a string of subsequent resolutions the Security Council took notice of the continuing failure by India to hold the plebiscite. However, no punitive action against India could be taken by the Security Council because its resolution, requiring India to hold a plebiscite, was non-binding, and contrary to the requirements of the Security Council Resolution 47, the Pakistani army never left the part of the Kashmir it had taken control of by the end of the 1947 war.
1990 (a): Jagmohan Warns Kashmiris
The newly-appointed governor of Jammu and Kashmir, Jagmohan, spoke to the people through a broadcast over radio and television. Having earned a lot of goodwill in his first tenure, Jagmohan assured a fair administration. But he could not sustain his soft tone for long. He proceeded to issue warnings, a step that triggered off severe and angry reactions.
“I am here as a nurse,” Jagmohan said. “I will not take any salary. I will take only Rs 1000 for my personal expenses. However, if anybody tries to create a law and order problem, the peace card I am holding will slip away from my hands.”
The threat was carried out in just twenty-four hours when scores of marchers were gunned down at Gaw Kadal by a party of the Jammu and Kashmir Police and the CRPF.
1990 (b): Rumours of Search Operation
A rumour about CRPF personnel molesting women in the Chotta Bazar area of Srinagar during a search operation added fuel to the fire. People came out in large numbers in the Batmaloo quarter to protest the incident. The demonstrations continued the whole night.
1995: India Rules Out Third Party Role
India excluded the possibility of third-party involvement in the resolution of the Kashmir dispute. But said that it was prepared to hear from Pakistan directly about how much “elbow room” was necessary to commence talks between the two countries.